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Plyometrics: Definition and Description

Plyometrics: Definition and Description

Plyometrics, also known as "jump training," is a type of exercise that focuses on explosive movements to increase power, speed, and agility. It involves stretching the muscles and then contracting them rapidly to generate maximum force. The goal of plyometric training is to enhance the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce quick and powerful movements.

Plyometric exercises are designed to take advantage of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) of the muscles. The SSC is a natural mechanism in the human body that involves the rapid stretch of a muscle followed by an immediate contraction. This sequence of events creates a more forceful muscle contraction than a contraction without a prior stretch. Plyometrics utilizes the SSC by incorporating jumping and other explosive movements that require the muscles to rapidly stretch and contract.

Training Techniques: Low-Level Plyometrics vs. Max Effort

There are two types of plyometric training techniques: low-level plyometrics and max effort plyometrics.

Low-level plyometrics are typically performed at a lower intensity and involve less complex movements. These exercises are designed to help develop proper jumping and landing mechanics and to build a foundation for more advanced plyometric exercises. Examples of low-level plyometric exercises include jump rope, ankle hops, and bounding.

Max effort plyometrics, on the other hand, are performed at a higher intensity and involve more complex movements. These exercises are designed to increase explosive power and speed. Examples of max effort plyometric exercises include depth jumps, box jumps, and hurdle jumps.

Incorporating Plyometrics into Your Training

Plyometrics can be incorporated into any training program to help improve power, speed, and agility. However, it is important to note that plyometric exercises are high-intensity and high-impact, so proper technique and progression are essential to avoid injury.

Before beginning plyometric training, it is important to establish a foundation of strength and proper mechanics. It is recommended that individuals perform strength training exercises for at least six to eight weeks prior to beginning plyometric training.

When incorporating plyometrics into a training program, it is important to start with low-level plyometric exercises and gradually progress to more advanced exercises. It is also important to vary the type of plyometric exercises performed to prevent overuse injuries and to ensure balanced muscle development.

Here are some examples of plyometric exercises at different levels:

Low-Level Plyometric Exercises:

  1. Jump Rope - Begin by jumping rope for 30 seconds to 1 minute at a time. Gradually increase the time and intensity of the exercise.

  2. Ankle Hops - Start by standing on one foot and hopping forward and backward. Gradually increase the distance and height of the hops.

  3. Bounding - Begin by taking long strides and hopping forward with each stride. Gradually increase the distance and speed of the exercise.

Max Effort Plyometric Exercises:

  1. Depth Jumps - Stand on a box or bench, step off the box and as soon as your feet hit the ground, jump up as high as you can.

  2. Box Jumps - Stand in front of a box or bench, and jump up onto it. Step down and repeat.

  3. Hurdle Jumps - Set up a series of hurdles and jump over them in succession.

Plyometrics is an effective training method for improving power, speed, and agility. It utilizes the stretch-shortening cycle to create explosive movements and develop neuromuscular coordination. When incorporating plyometric exercises into a training program, it is important to start with low-level exercises and gradually progress to more advanced exercises while ensuring proper technique and progression. Proper programming and supervision are key to safe and effective plyometric training.


  1. Chu, D. A. (1998). Jumping into plyometrics. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  2. Clanton, T. O., & Onate, J. A. (2011). Plyometric training in the rehabilitation of athletes: physiological responses and clinical application. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 41(10), 749-762.

  3. Hewett, T. E., Stroupe, A. L., Nance, T. A., & Noyes, F. R. (1996). Plyometric training in female athletes. Decreased impact forces and increased hamstring torques. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 24(6), 765-773.

  4. Marques, M. C., Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J., & Izquierdo, M. (2016). Enhancing jump performance after combined vs. maximal power, heavy-resistance, and plyometric training alone. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 30(2), 413-420.

  5. Markovic, G., Mikulic, P., & Smiljanic, M. (2007). Effects of plyometric training on jumping performance in junior basketball players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(2), 628-631.

  6. Ratamess, N. A. (2012). ACSM's foundations of strength training and conditioning. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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